How arp works and what parameters help pc determine if the network that it wants to ping is in same network or different network

#1

Suppose I have a PC1 with 192.168.1.0/24 connected to a switch . The switch is then connected to a router which has a Default gateway of 192.168.1.254. The router again is connecting to another network say 4.4.4.0/8 with default gateway of 4.4.4.1 . The router is then again connected to a switch and switch connects to PC2. My Questions are below.
1)Why gracious arp is used when a PC or any device boots ?
2)What parameters help the PC1 know that PC2 is in same network or different network ?
3)How Arp and ICMP works ?
4)How the switch learns MAC ?
5)How Router learns ARP?

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#2

1)Why gracious arp is used when a PC or any device boots ?

Gratuitous arp sent in network for many reasons one of the reason it is used to identify the duplicate Ip address.

2)What parameters help the PC1 know that PC2 is in same network or different network ?

Anding Process

3)How Arp and ICMP works ?

I can write 500 words here for this but on a short note, ARP is used to find the mac address and ICMP protocol is used by ping and traceroute to send echo messages.

4)How the switch learns MAC ?

When switch receives any traffic on particular port, it binds the machine mac on that port.

5)How Router learns ARP?

Router is also like a computer and behaves like the same in case of ARP. Whenever router wants to send any packet to any other router, it also need mac address of another router.

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